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When Amenhotep III (reigned c1390 - 1352 BC) became Pharaoh in 1390 BC, Egypt had become the richest and most powerful nation on earth through war and conquest. Below is a summary of a news report announcing a discovery related to Amenhotep III and his son Amenhotep IV:. Both the records of Flavius Josephus and an honest study of the chronology of the period attest to us that an 18th Dynasty pharaoh named Thutmose (called Tethmosis by Josephus, Against Apion 1.91-94, most probably Thutmose III) was the pharaoh of the Exodus. Thutmose III reigned 54 years 1504-1450 B.C. The joint Egyptian and European “Colossi of Memnon and Amenhotep III Temple Conservation Project” recently re-erected a colossal quartzite statue of Pharaoh Amenhotep III near Luxor, Egypt. Remembering Englewood's Mordecai (Morty) Katz, z”l, Marlboro 8-Year-Old Inspires Others to Give, A Clear Guide to Israel’s Messy Coalitions. He ruled approximately from 1452 BC to 1425 BC. I will explain why his writings should be regarded as remnants of ancient Egyptian records and oral traditions that testify to the historical records. 12:30 and Num. He was also called Amenophis and his name Amenhotep means Amun, one of the gods in Egypt. Osarsiph sent ambassadors to the shepherd kings in Jerusalem who had long bef… Kathleen Kenyon determined the Israelites conquered Jericho between 1350-1325 BCE where the last cartouches of pharaoh Amenhotep III were found in some of the tombs, thus suggesting Amenhotep III was the likely pharaoh of the Exodus… Biblical passages correlate Frogs frequently came on land after Nile inundations—as they did in the second plague—so much so that the Egyptians considered them an omen of fertility. That resolves the chronological discrepancy between the Biblical date for the Exodus in 1446 and the date of Thutmose III’s death in 1450, and in so doing it puts the Exodus directly in the middle of two sets of problematic texts and thus provides another potential explanation for them. Exodus occurs in spring of 1446BC . -In the early 19th Century an ancient papyrus was found in Egypt. During the reigns of Amenhotep III and Akhenaten, the Egyptian army remained inexplicably quiescent even as strife was tearing apart Egypt’s Canaanite city-state vassals and diminishing the tribute they paid to Egypt. For one thing, the Egyptians usually avoided recording bad events. Upon his becoming emperor, he appointed his young son, Tutankhamen, as "crown-prince" and for the next 8/9 years, this pharaoh ruled Egypt. It would be nice if we had more persuasive evidence of the 10 plagues and the Exodus, regardless of which Pharaoh it points to. In my next column, I will discuss two Exodus-like accounts written by a non-biblical source, the controversial priest/historian Manetho from the third century BCE. Ira Friedman, a retired attorney, is an independent researcher with an interest in the intersection of the Torah and ancient Egyptian history. Recently, however, scholars made a discovery that could add another name to the list: Amenhotep III (1390-1353 BCE). You can download the paper by clicking the button above. THE PHARAOH OF THE EXODUS Upon Amenhotep II's death, his co-regent for 29 years, the 4th Thutmoses, became Amenhotep III. Israel’s exodus from Egypt in 1446 B.C. To browse Academia.edu and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to upgrade your browser. 12:13, 23). 45, No. The papyrus was written by an Egyptian named Ipuwer and appears to be an eyewitness account of the effects of the Exodus plagues. Locust infestations occurred from time to time in the Near and Middle East, as they did most recently in 2013. This absence has provided the occasion for considerable controversy and speculation as to just who this Pharaoh was and when he ruled in Egypt. AMENHOTEP III AND THE EXODUS. Some proponents of the early Exodus date (around 1450 BC) propose the successor of Thutmose III, his son Amenhotep II, as a possible option for the pharaoh of the Exodus. The Akhenaten's reign: an egyptological delirium! He was the “Master of the Horse” for Amenhotep III, the grandson of Thutmose III. According to Mr. Osman, it was the declining health of Pharaoh Amenhotep III that afforded his wife, Tiye, the influence to see to it that her son Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten) became the next in line. Amenhotep III proclaimed himself a deity while he was still alive, something no pharaoh before him had done. Or so it seemed. ), and the Exodus occurred about 1445/6 b.c. William Shea. last year of Amenhotep III. Amenhotep II (1427-1392 B.C. AMENHOTEP III 1390-1352 Amenhotep III is a Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of the new kingdom around 1382 to 1344 BC. b. Moreover, the Egyptians had experienced events similar to the first nine plagues before. According to Egyptologist Arielle Kozloff, this and other factors add up to emerging evidence that epidemics caused this Pharaoh’s scribes to fall silent (she suspects the black plague). Is the Pharaoh of the Exodus. Moreover, it is possible that evidence of any of the first nine “plagues” will never be found. ). a. When the Nile’s water turned to blood or a blood-like substance in the first plague, the Egyptians may have assumed that Sekhmet was attacking Egyptians again, as she did in the myth. 18. During his reign, Tuthmosis IV helped make Egypt a prosperous nation, bringing in gold and making alliances with other nations. The Pharaoh of the Exodus would be Amenhotep II (1436-1407 b.c. There are two main opinions among scholars as to who the Pharaoh was during the time of the Exodus in Egypt by the Hebrews. Throughout his 40 years of reign, he had built incredible statues. So far, Pharaoh Merneptah’s stela from around 1209 BCE is the first mention we have found of a people called “Israel.” Until then, Egypt and other powers may have thought of the Israelites as just another group of Apiru or Shasu—nomadic or semi-nomadic groups that attacked the Canaanite city-states. But even Kozloff notes the similarity between the scenario she draws and the Exodus story, although she defers to the view that a 13th-entury BCE Pharaoh let the Israelites leave Egypt. Amenhotep III’s son Akhenaten brought on the Amarna Revolution, the theological civil war that violently pitted Egyptian god against god, priest against priest, which would certainly qualify as the ultimate manifestation of God’s “judgment against the Egyptian deities” (Exod. The simple answer: we do not know for sure, but there are quite a few plausible possibilities. In 1483 B.C., Moses was exiled from Egypt by this Thutmose upon the death of Hatshepsut, Moses’ foster mother and protector… Upon the death of Thutmose in 1450, Amenhotep II assumed the sole leadership of the country.” According to the Good News article, it was Amenhotep II who was the Pharaoh of the Exodus. fits with the chronology of the 18th Dynasty pharaohs in Egyptian records. His was a golden age for Egypt; peace prevailed throughout its empire, and riches were flowing in from Egypt’s vassal states. Kozloff writes that other known events indicative of a national health crisis probably occurred during these “lost years”: the death of this Pharaoh’s oldest son, the deaths of his in-laws (both known to have died from malaria), and Amenhotep III’s order that as many as 700 statues of Sekhmet, ancient Egypt’s goddess of war and plague, be cast and prayed to daily. This would make it occur in the 18th Egyptian Dynasty. The Exodus from Egypt: Archaeological Data and Expectations. ), and Rameses II (1279 - 1213 B.C.). Amenhotep III, also called Amenophis III, king of ancient Egypt (reigned 1390–53 bce) in a period of peaceful prosperity, who devoted himself to expanding diplomatic contacts and to extensive building in Egypt and Nubia. To learn more, view our, Re-calculating the Historical Age of the Israelites in Egypt and the Date of the Exodus Part THREE. Careful review of his heavy documentation has surfaced a gap of roughly eight years, from his 12th year to his 19th. 12:12). THUTMOSE IV 1417-1390. If the 10 plagues did occur during his reign, Amenhotep may have felt responsible for failing to maintain cosmic order and stability (. Amenophis II: Amenhotep II was also known as Amenophis II and he was the son of Thutmose III. Amenhotep II as Pharaoh of the Exodus. A team of Spanish and Egyptian archaeologists made a find in a southern Egyptian tomb that opens the way to a … Finally, the darkness of the ninth plague is reminiscent of the Ipuwer’s report in “Admonitions of a Sage,” dated to Egypt’s Middle Kingdom or Hyksos times, that the sun was obscured during a violent period. So, in the first plague, God may have led the Egyptians to focus their prayers for relief from that and later plagues on Sekhmet, setting them up for the last plague, in which God repudiated Sekhmet (and the other Egyptian deities) when He prevented “the Destroyer” from attacking Israelite houses (Exod. The Temple was built in his fourth year (965 b.c. Builds up elite military force, 2nd to none in the Middle East. The smoothly polished massive statue depicts the pharaoh seated with a … The Egyptian Empire of the New Kingdom reached its height during its eighteenth dynasty, particularly during the reigns of Amenhotep II, Thutmose IV and Amenhotep III who ruled c. 1425-1350 B.C. 12:12). We can add Amenhotep III’s feverish Sekhmet worship to the list of possible reasons to associate him with the Exodus. Amenhotep III or as he was used to be called “Nebma’atre, Amenophis III, and Amana-Hatpa” was the 9th ruler of ancient Egypt during the 18th dynasty.All of his names are highly associated with Amun just to satisfy his deity and he was the son of Tuthmosis IV. In the second year of his reign, he campaigned in Syria to put down a revolt against Egyptian rule. Read More on This Topic ancient Egypt: Amenhotep III In the recent Ridley Scott film, Exodus: Gods and Kings, Moses confronts the Egyptian pharaoh, Ramses II, with the request that pharaoh let Moses lead the children of Israel. Thutmose IV as a Candidate for the Eldest Son of Amenhotep II. Biblical history can be harmonized with Egyptian history, claims to the contrary notwithstanding. I admit to a motive here: he attributes these Exodus-like events to Amenhotep III and one of the Thutmosides (not Hatshepsut, but she may be the Pharaoh he means). The Israelites may not have become an ethically identifiable group until after the Exodus. Amenhotep III was an incredibly successful pharaoh, but he was also set up for success. 1070-180 BC). 11:4). But that may be too much to expect. How-ever, if the Israelites lived in or near Heliopolis, as Josephus believed, Moses would have had a short trip to Memphis from his home base. For another, the trauma of the last plague (see Ex. by Damien F. Mackey Part One: His father was a Thutmose Having a double set of the combination: Thutmose – Amenhotep in the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt: Tuthmosis III Amenhotep II Tuthmosis IV Amenhotep III inevitably makes me wonder if, as in the case of Egypt’s Old-Middle Kingdoms, some duplications may have occurred,… While inspiration does not extend to extra-biblical literature or ancient inscriptions, many extant writings do possess a … Image: Amenhotep III. The Biblical book of Exodus does not name the Pharaoh whom Moses encountered after his return from Sinai. Academia.edu uses cookies to personalize content, tailor ads and improve the user experience. He inherited the throne at a time when Egypt was well established as the world ruler. What Do the New Jersey Marijuana Regulations Mean? Amenhotep II was born to Thutmose III and a minor wife of the king: Merytre-Hatshepsut.He was not, however, the firstborn son of this pharaoh; his elder brother Amenemhat, the son of the great king's chief wife Satiah, was originally the intended heir to the throne since Amenemhat was designated the 'king's eldest son" and overseer of the cattle of Amun in Year 24 of Thutmose's reign. The Pharaoh of the oppression would be Thutmose III (1490-1436 b.c.). If Israel left Egypt shortly after the death of Thutmose III, the pharaoh of the Exodus would have been Amenhotep II. Recent reports that epidemics may have caused a prolonged pause in the documentation of Amenhotep III (1390-1353 BCE), and other information we have about his reign, suggest that he may have been the pharaoh of the Exodus. 213 ites resided well north of Memphis, near Avaris or the Wadi Tu milat. It was taken to the Leiden Museum in Holland and interpreted by A.H. Gardiner in 1909. An ancient inscription records an Egyptian officer’s complaints about bites from swarms of insects, reminiscent of the fourth plague. He was born at the beginning of the 14th century BCE to Tuthmosis IV, who was then pharaoh of Egypt. According to different authors, he ruled Egypt from June 1386 to 1349 BC, or from June 1388 BC to December 1351 BC/1350 BC, after his father Thutmose IV died. More statues of Sekhmet were made at this Pharaoh’s command than of all other subjects combined, including likenesses of Pharaoh himself. No doubt, epidemics struck ancient Egypt from time to time. oPapyrus 2:10- The river is blo… There are several reasons to believe that the Israelites resided near Heliopo-lis. AMENHOTEP II 1452-1417 Takes throne 6 years before Moses returns from Midian. Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link. The final step before determining whether Amenhotep II is a viable candidate for the exodus-pharaoh is to synchronize the date of the exodus with Egyptian history. He was the 9th pharaoh, the grandson of Thutmosis III. 1:11), confirmation that Ramesses II did indeed have a palatial city called Pi-Ramesses, and a dramatic upsurge, starting at the end of his century, in Israelite settlements across the Canaanite hill country and Transjordan. Amenhotep III (Ancient Egyptian: imn-ḥtp(.w) "Amun is Satisfied"; Hellenized as Amenophis III), also known as Amenhotep the Magnificent, was the ninth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty. Amenhotep II, the Egyptian pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty. 16- Thutmose IV succeeded his father Amenhotep II although he was not actually the crown prince and the one chosen by Amenhotep II as successor to the throne. Arguably the most important extra-biblical account of the Exodus comes from the Egyptian historian Manetho, who relates that a king called Amenophis was advised by his oracle, also called Amenophis, to clear his country of the lepers and impure people who were within Egypt’s borders at that time. Amenhotep III was Thutmose's son by a minor wife, Mutemwiya. Daughter of Thutmose I (a pharaoh) was Hatshepsut, who adopted Moses. Who was the Exodus Pharaoh? The papyrus describes violent upheavals in Egypt, starvation, drought, escape of slaves (with the wealth of the Egyptians), and death throughout the land. From among them, Ramesses II is the heavy favorite of Bible-believing scholars, bolstered by the Torah’s explicit mention of the place-names Ramesses (Gen. 47:11) and Raamses (Exod. This sounds very much like confirmation of Moses’ remark that the army was still disabled years after the Israelites left Egypt (Deut. For the exodus-pharaoh, the worst part of God's prediction of judgment was that his own firstborn son would die. Exodus date 1443 occurred at end of ninth year, beginning of tenth year of Amenhotep II who reigned jointly two and a half years with Thutmose III. He had an unprecedented accumulation of wealth, he was “rich in horses” and he was evidently a womanizer. The Writing of History in Ancient Egypt during the First Millennium BC (ca. Of interest for this placement are: 1. Violent storms such as the seventh plague, though rare, occurred from time to time, as testified by the Ahmose tempest stela. 33:4) may have overwritten memory of the first nine plagues. The only difference is that the identity of the Pharaoh of the Exodus has been shifted from Thutmose III to Amenhotep IIA. That resolves the chronological discrepancy between the Biblical date for the Exodus in 1446 and the date of Thutmose III’s death in 1450, and in so doing it puts the Exodus directly in the middle of two sets of problematic texts and thus provides another potential explanation for them. Sorry, preview is currently unavailable. Mr. Osman claims that a co-regency began in which both Amenhotep III and Amenhotep IV … Amenhotep III’s son Akhenaten brought on the Amarna Revolution, the theological civil war that violently pitted Egyptian god against god, priest against priest, which would certainly qualify as the ultimate manifestation of God’s “judgment against the Egyptian deities” (Exod. THUTMOSE III 1504-1450 Takes over rule of Egypt in 1483, rules Egypt for 22 years and dies. As the Bible tells it: And the Lord said to Moses, “See, I have made you like God to Pharaoh, and your brother Aaron shall be your prophet. The Bible prohibits Israelite kings from owning many horses, having many women and accumulating much gold (Deut. The Exodus Problem. 2. Archaeologists digging in Egypt have made a discovery that could bring major changes to Egyptian history and chronology. This is a line of sphinxes constructed by Amenhotep III in order to allow the gods to visit each other between the temples at Luxor and Karnak. Academia.edu no longer supports Internet Explorer. The tenth biblical plague against Egypt fits with what is known about the death of Amenhotep … The account parallels the Book of Exodus. Modern archaeologists claim there is no evidence of a mass exodus of any group from Egypt and they generally assign the Biblical Exodus to the reign of Rameses the Great but this date is far to late for an Israelite mass exodus. Amenhotep II was "second born" son of Thutmoses III: a. Thutmoses III is confirmed as the pharaoh of the exodus in that his firstborn son "Amenemhat" by Queen Merytre-Hatshepsut died in the 10 th plague but his second born son, Amenhotep II survived the 10 th plague and succeeded Thutmoses III … Trends and Perspectives, Re-calculating the Historical Age of the Israelites in Egypt and the Date of the Exodus PART TWO. This expulsion led to a revolt against the king under the leadership of a priest called Osarsiph, whom Manetho identifies as Moses4. Among the documents that broke the silence were records of appointments to various offices, replacing former incumbents whose names have been scratched out along with the cause of their departure. 4, 2017 . By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. The only difference is that the identity of the Pharaoh of the Exodus has been shifted from Thutmose III to Amenhotep IIA. 3. If Amenhotep II was the exoduspharaoh, his firstborn son had to die without the chance to … Amenhotep II began to reign in 1453 B.C. While pharaohs in general were self-indulgent—self-promoting inscriptions, extensive building projects, wall paintings and the like testifying to extravagant lifestyles—Amenhotep III seems to stand out for these particular indulgences. 17:16-17). However, Tuthmosis IV fell ill and died after only reigning nine years. There is more. As I wrote in a Jewish Link column in 2015, Sekhmet became known as “the destroyer by plague” from the “Destruction of Humanity” myth, which told of her killing Egyptians for disrespecting her father, the sun-god Ra; their blood, or a blood-like substance used to subdue her, flowed into the Nile. Vol.

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